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DNA bill is not clear about consent and privacy

DNA bill is not clear about consent and privacy

DNA Regulation (Usage and Application) Act 2019 (DNA Bill) has recently created a dispute about the issue of privacy, but the bill has been in the pipeline for the last three years.

The original draft law was submitted to the commission in September 2016 by the

Biotechnology Department of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

After reviewing the bill, the Law Commission proposed some changes in its July 2017 report. The present bill is practical, as the Commission has proposed in its 2017 report.

Recommendations of the Law Committee

The original bill was entitled: Use and Regulation of DNA-based Technology in Civil and Criminal Proceedings, Recognition of Missing Persons and Human Reservations Bill, 2016 The contents of the bill were publicly criticized on the privacy concerns.

However, the Commission’s report did not address these concerns adequately on this issue.

The recommendations of the commission were primarily for the formation of DNA (profiling panel as a legal body for the maintenance of DNA panel and DNA database.

The purpose of obtaining the bill is that the DNA database, maintaining unknown dead bodies, Can be identified with criminals with natural accuracy and relative accuracy, where there is a 0.01% error rate in terms of DNA technology, but just a Kanu Minister to introduce provisions to establish bodies, current gaps and defects are not adequately addressed.

DNA Bell
The basic problem approval in the current DNA bill is approval. Justice K.S. According to Puttaswamy (Retired) and triple test given in Meera. Vs Union of India and ORS Regarding privacy:

The second side is a consensus on the privacy decision. Judge DY Chandchood emphasized the importance of “informed consent”. According to the current law, consent was forced to be forcibly and forcibly.

In the case of Potoswamy, a new dimension was given to the consensus, that is, it should be communicated, which means that if all the facts are not known to the person, then the agreed consent will become contaminated.

Another point where current Draft Law fails in Puttaswamy, in such cases of citizen cases where DNA identification may be necessary, such as paternity suit. In this case, the retention of the DNA profile of the respective parties is not a general purpose.

According to Article 21 and 22 of the Draft Law, the consent of DNA samples should be obtained in all cases except in specific crimes.

The interpretation states that specific crimes are those where punishment is seven years or more or death. If the consent can not be obtained – in a criminal case – the sample can be collected on the order of the judge.

The problem here is that it is well known that the police specializes in influencing the persons in their custody – either by force or by prosecution – and thus, although Article 25 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 provides this investigation That the identity of the court is unacceptable, the police can encourage self-harassment by testing DNA.

An important privacy problem arises around the proposed DNA data banks. It has been envisaged that they will be established and maintained at regional and central levels.

These data banks will maintain six indicators: Crime Scene Index, Criminal Index, Suspect Index, guarantor index, missing person index and unknown dead person index.

Despite the DNA data recorded in the infringer index, all other information can be removed from the repository. In the case of a suspect, on the basis of the police report presented or on the order of the court. In the case of trial by court order.

DNA profiles can be removed for those people who have been registered in DNA related warehouses and have not committed any offense, when applying to the DNA bank manager’s National Bank. However, the DNA profile of guilty or criminal is not included in the proposed section.

This raises the question about the stage on which the person’s DNA sample will be collected and approval is required or not.

Another issue concerns the widespread philosophy of the criminal justice system, in which the guilty person should not be fined after conviction.

One of the deficiencies in the bill mentioned in PRS India is that there are specific provisions that restrict the retention of data on medical history and physical features in DNA data banks, two other countries with laws in South Africa and Ireland.

The present bill does not have any special provision for itself.

The first reason for which the bill was placed was the identification of dead bodies.

However, in its current draft, the draft bill is beyond the mere recognition of unclaimed bodies. On one hand, the positive side is that there is a proposal to regulate Bill DNA testing.

Chandrayaan-2 and Indian Space Tour

Chandrayaan-2 and Indian Space Tour

India’s Space Exploration Program puts its next step on July 15, 2019, India’s second space research project, Chandrayaan-2. The first mission was mainly carried out by the orbital spacecraft, while a symbol was sent with the Indian flag to crash on the moon, which was symbolically “laying” the Indian tricolor on the moon.

On the other hand, Chandrayaan-2 is successfully taking a major step in India by attempting to land a rover on the Moon, while the orbital vessel continues with various observations and experiments.

With the exception of any unexpected event, Chandrayaan-2 is expected to launch itself on the most powerful ISRO missile so far, GSLV-III (Geostationary Launch Vehicle), going through many pre-launch tests.

Simulations and ground run Easily after Unfortunately, you would not know how the mission works especially if it gets crowned successfully till the middle of September when the car reaches the moon, so these aspects should be discussed for the events which are still very much are far.

If there is pre-launch publicity and past experience, then after the successful launch, there will be a great tribute to India’s space capabilities, and it will claim how many times India has achieved through Chandrayaan-2, India is ahead for congratulations on the number of self-congratulations.

All of whom confirm the fact that India has touched the door of the state of great power.

This bullet-riddled, bustling atmosphere will not provide a good context for a disgusting debate about the current and expected future of India’s space program, which Chandrayaan-2 tells us, and can not be tried to improve it. is.

Therefore, although there is always a danger in declaring “professional skeptics” or even “anti-national”, the pre-launch window can provide better opportunities for such debate.

The release

From a purely Indian perspective, the mission is taking many new steps, even if it is not a leader.

The GSLV-III launch vehicle is the heaviest in the ISRO, which is capable of carrying a 4 ton spacecraft in about 8 tonnes Geostationary Orbit (GTO) in LEO, while the old GSLV missile has a maximum of 2.3 tons.

The capacity of this heavy lift is not only required for Chandrayaan-2, which includes the Chandrayaan-2 orbital mother ship, along with Vikram (1,471kg) lander (named after astronaut Vikram Sarabhai) and 27 kilogram rover Pragyan (knowledge) Should be taken.

Which will hit the back of the classroom, but in the future, large communication satellites too.

This will help ISRO launch the largest communication satellites that India is currently seeking, currently the European Arian missile is being launched from Equatorial Guinea.

To keep things properly, it is still a relatively small payload and as a result GSLV-III rating will be the best “middle lift” rocket.

In comparison, Elon Musk’s Space-X Falcon ‘Heavy’ can lift its goods from 26.7 tonnes to GTO and 63.8 tonnes from Leo, or 16 tonnes on Mars.

GSLV-III is also planning to start its first manned space flight in India in 2020, with its three-man unit, weighing less than 8 tonnes, the height is about 400 km.

For example, compared to GSLV-III, this high payload, compared to the previous GSLV versions, forgets PSLV players, still sets important limits on what ISRO can launch in the coming years. For this reason, the Chandrayaan-2 mission takes about two months to reach the Moon.

The spacecraft will be first placed in the orbital orbit of approximately 170 kilometers (at a short distance from the center of the earth in an oval orbit) and 40,200 kilometers from Apozy (the longest distance).

This will be followed by a series of rocket boosters or orbital maneuvers, which are prepared to transport the vehicle to the longer lunar orbits, until they reach the heights where they are in the orbit of the moon, by the Moon’s gravity.

In the last polar orbit of 100 km × 100 km they capture in the matter of maneuvers.

This type of launch, which ISRO has also used during the Mars Mission Mission Mars mission, is probably using the Earth’s gravitational and highly elliptical orbit to spread the spacecraft like ISRO, like a catapult, due to its payload capacity.

However, they are also fiercely favored internationally for automatic launch (i.e., no one is included), where the time is not important because of low cost because low fuel is burned and the use of gravitational work Is done for.

However, this will definitely put a very strict ban on Indian manned space operations.

Modern computing leader Alan Turing gets the recognition he deserves

Modern computing leader Alan Turing gets the recognition he deserves

How many years do a person need before a person is set free from crime? How many years do one person need to apologize to the person for misbehaving? Maybe a century, maybe several centuries, maybe even less.

In the case of Alan Turing, the British government had taken half a century before it realized the abuse and serious violation of justice done by them.

Alan Turing is widely considered to be the pioneer in modern computing. In fact, this was the new Turing theory that led to the development of modern computers.

Turing is now known as Turing Machine, a virtual computing machine that can use the predefined set of rules to determine the result of the input variable.

Our desktops, laptops, smartphones and more, our artificial intelligence, all have the principle of installing a Turing machine.

Turing’s other important work left a historic mark on history, breaking the code during World War II. The Turing formula, known as the German Riddle Code, can help a team break it, it proves that it is important for allies.

But despite his intellectual abilities, Turing remained unable to gain much acceptance in his own country during his lifetime. In 1952, Turing was convicted of gross pornography. The reason was their relationship with a man.

Homosexuality was not tolerated and Turing was chemically selected for one year instead of facing prison sentence. Two years later, at the age of 41, he died. The cyanide of which he died from the poison was found to be suicide.

It took almost half a century until the British government finally could not understand the serious injustice that Thoring had. In 2009, Prime Minister Gordon Brown released an apology from the British government. Brown admitted that Turing’s treatment was an inhuman activity.

Brown wrote in a statement, “We’re sorry, you were pretty good.” Brown also told the country that the great mathematician of the country had a big debt which he had to get a terrible and totally inappropriate treatment.

Back in 2013, Rani officially pardoned him. This course is very late and very short.

But the state’s recognition of Turing’s mistrust led to the subsequent apology for the government for almost 50,000 gay men, who have been historically warned or convicted of homosexuality.

This year, the British government decided to put Alan Turing on the new design of the £ 50 bond of the Bank of England.

CCC contains more than 989 dead scientists, one of which has been selected for this note. This list included artists such as Rosalind Franklin, Dorothy Hodgkin and Srinivasa Ramanujan Acton. But the committee decided to elect Alan Turing.

Selection of Alan Turing is not only a recognition of his scientific nature, but a step towards accepting homosexuality in England. This is important due to the phenomenon of fear of homosexuals in society.

A recent survey has shown that two-thirds of the LGBTQ + community in the UK are still afraid to catch their hands publicly for fear of negative reactions. The survey also showed that four out of 10 LGBTQA + people experienced some form of hate incidents.

Worldwide, there are 72 countries in which homosexual relations are still illegal, and 11 countries are punishable by homosexuality.

Turing not only accepts his contribution to mathematics and computing, but also sends a strong message for treatments similar to those of same-sex people.

Looking at all this activity, and there is no doubt about Chinese efforts in particular, the Trump Administration announced that it would return to the moon in 2024.

The United States is also planning to use the Moon as a basis for launching the discovery of other planets, especially Mars. NASA administrator Bernstein recently predicted the origin of Mars in 2023, saying “Moon was the land of proof, and Mars’s goal is the horizon.”

National cut is a matter of concern, especially because there are very few references to international cooperation. Greed is another cause of concern in connection with minerals and other resources on the Moon and other bodies in space.

Humans have done enough damage to the land through extracts industries, and national and commercial rivals have threatened the Arctic that due to global warming, due to the melting of the snow, without spreading the external disease.

India can learn a lot from these experiences. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the scientific community and ground level activities should be carefully examined and should try to make an expanded Indian space program.

50 years of the first human landing on the moon

50 years of the first human landing on the moon

It was one of those wonderful moments in the history of mankind when they were lucky to ask, “Where were you when you first landed on the moon?” The writer was lucky that this troubled moment was watching live on television.

American astronaut Neil Armstrong first climbed to the moon (hereafter Edwin ‘Paz Aldrin) from July 20, 1969, Eagle, Space Apollo 11 was launched on 16 July 1969 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, USA.

No one can see the scene or to see the words of Armstrong, who has sent the spine down: “A small step for a man, a huge leap for mankind.”

(Armstrong confirmed that he called “man”, meaning himself, but the weak acoustic signal consumed “A”, the meaning of sentence changed; surely, today would like to say “human race” .) The whole world celebrated this remarkable achievement this week.

These columns also want to return to the Moon’s first landing and discuss the importance of human space exploration and its role in the affairs of the nations.

Background of cold war

Whatever the first human fall on any body outside the planet and still is, the harsh reality is that the task of obtaining it is less motivated by altruism.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy announced the Apollo program in a speech to the US Congress on May 26, 1961, at that time when the United States tried to fiddle Fidel Castro’s government in Cuba, serious on trying to grow in Vietnam and fail in a polarized war.

Faced with problems and survival concerns. United Nations on racial discrimination and civil rights, tireless victory of the Soviet Union, ideological enemy, in space.

American astronauts were some kind of clean, all-American hero, whom America longed for at that time.

In October 1957, the first man Yuri Gagarin was sent to Earth orbit in April 1961. He first came before the Space Beast, and Lycopter Leka, who died, almost unfortunately, every action performed first.

Kennedy is disappointed with this series of Soviet victory, pursuing his biggest rival in every region of the United States, asking for the various space missions in the memorandum to Vice President Lyndon Johnson, to the United States It can be reversed, and then can focus on the mission of manned moon.

Kennedy did not specify the time limit for NASA’s “end-decade” whose successive departments and departments have invested in the space program.

At one point, NASA’s budget was 4.6% of the federal budget, half percent now than today, and during that decade the Apollo program was allocated $ 25 billion at 1960 prices, every year, the US GDP Approximately 2.5%!

These huge resources have provided inspiration from the first unmanned flight of American astronaut John Glenn in 1962 to the Moon’s landing in 1969, for the rapid progress of the American space program.

The United States and many others believe that they have changed the curriculum. History, and that the Cold War may have taken a different turn if the United States did not achieve this important “victory” in space.

However, the space program was not widely supported by the American public, with only 50% support passing directly from the moon.

After Apollo 11, many other landings followed a great but blissful excitement not only in the United States but throughout the world.

Up to 17 astronauts in Apollo 17 in 1972, all of whom traveled to the moon, American, male and white. The repetitive works developed by American audiences can only be called boredom, and the United States put a curtain on its schedule.

Low earth orbit includes long journeys and long-distance migration to the International Space Station (ISS), and after the retirement the space shuttle program is used for that purpose.

The Soviet never invested any effort or equivalent in the pursuit of human space outside the Earth’s orbit. The era of human ancestry on the Moon, and perhaps a starting point for the discovery of other planets was over.

However, it should be said that the first fall of the Moon has provoked the whole world and filled it with panic on human progress and the extent of progress.

In spite of American victory at home, people did not welcome their American victory as much as Michael Collins (Armstrong and Aldrin, while the commander of the orbiting circle of the Moon), wherever he went, but one for all mankind As the achievement.

ISRO successfully launches India’s second moon mission – Chandrayaan 2

ISRO successfully launches India's second moon mission - Chandrayaan 2

India on Monday successfully launched its second Lunar Mission -2 with its powerful GSLV-MK Eighth-M1 rocket to detect the unmanned southern pole of the celestial body by Land Rover.

The space launch vehicle launched in space with Earth from Satish Duan Space Center was launched at 2.43 pm in the afternoon and about 16 minutes later, Chandrayaan 2 was successful in keeping 3,850 kilograms in Earth orbit.

Due to the success of the mission, scientists of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) got great satisfaction after the launch of July 15, which was suspended after about an hour after the technical failure of the rocket.

After a huge surge in Indian space research and a technical failure in the rocket in 9th grade, Quarre, who made the only fourth country to land a huge jump in Indian space research and make it the only fourth country to land on the moon, was rescheduled on Monday.

In the launch of textbooks, the majestic GSLV-MK Eighth-M1 was first launched from the second launch pad in Satish Duan Space Center, more than 100 km away from Chennai, when ISRO scientists exploded in happiness

Under the leadership of ISRO’s Sivan, the scientists looked at the order of launch with great interest and after every major phase of the rocket flight, began with the rumble of applause, which was progressing properly as a program.

“This is the beginning of a historic journey to India towards the Moon,” said Siwan, who is clearly satisfied, and who announced the success of the mission.

“We used to wear unstable colors after the last technical holidays,” he said of the blame which has reassured the space agency the date of the launch of Chandrayaan-2 from July 15 to Monday.

After being released from the Mission Control Center, he said in his speech, “In the next month, there will be 15 very important immunizations from the satellite and the satellite will be brought around the moon.”

“Then D-Day will come and on that day we will see terror for 15 minutes, to ensure safe landing with the South Pole.”

Last week, ISRO canceled the launch just after 56 minutes of countdown, a decision which was later welcomed by space experts as an intelligent solution to not risk the mission.

After taking remedial action on the basis of an analysis made by a team created for consideration at Aqaba, the space agency announced the takeoff, which was scheduled four days earlier, reflecting the belief of the scientists standing with the successful launch. is.

Chandrayaan-2 ISRO comes after 11 years of first successful mission of Chandrayaan-1, which leads to more than 3,400 lunar orbits and operates for 312 days till August 29, 2009.

ISRO said that 43 meter long GSLV-MKT-M1, whose name is “Bahubali”, was successful in keeping Chandrayaan-II in Earth orbit due to its heavy load capacity.

Chandran-2, a space shuttle with three components, with a space shuttle, space shuttle and spacecraft, will make 15 decisive maneuvers before landing on the moon by the first week of September.

The scientists will make easy landing in the Antarctic region of the Moon, where no country has yet to go.

Chandrayaan-2 has been described as the most complex and prestigious mission undertaken by ISRO since its inception, and after India, Russia and the United States, China will make India the fourth country on the Moon.

After takeoff of approximately 16.20 minutes, the GSLV Chandrayaan-2 rocket placed 170 km × 39059 km in the orbit of the Earth.

Here, this work will be subject to a series of maneuvers by scientists to complete various mission stages in the next 48 days.

After the launch rescheduling, the space agency revised the orbital stages, compared to the basically planned 17 days, the land related phase extended to 23 days.

At the end of the earth-bound phase, the spacecraft’s class will eventually become more than 1.05 kilometers before being pushed into the orbit of the moon, because it reaches the Moon for the next two days.

Then slowly, in the next few days, it will reach a circular orbit of 100 x 100 km, when the lineage breaks, and after a few days of rotation, it will descend slowly on a selected place on the Moon.

Downhill Landing – Vikram is one of the most difficult steps in the mission, with the “Bragian” vehicle, and is described by the ISRO president as “15-minute terror (full moon)”, an effort will be made from September 6-8 .

“Chandran-II is the next leap in technology because we try to reach a soft land near the Moon’s South Pole.

Around 15 minutes of horror “

The mission, which comprises 13 cargoes, including three from Europe, two from the United States and one from Bulgaria, wants to improve the understanding of the Moon, which can lead to those discoveries which will benefit India and humanity altogether .